(a) Basis of preparation
Statement of compliance
Old Mutual plc (the Company) is a company incorporated in the UK.
The Group financial statements consolidate those of the Company and its subsidiaries (together referred to as the "Group") and equity account the Group's interest in associates and jointly controlled entities. The Parent Company financial statements present information about the Company as a separate entity and not about its group.
Both the Parent Company financial statements and the Group financial statements have been prepared and approved by the directors in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the EU ("Adopted IFRSs"). On publishing the Parent Company financial statements here together with the Group financial statements, the Company is taking advantage of the exemption in s230 of the Companies Act 1985 not to present its individual income statement and related notes that form a part of these approved financial statements.
The Group has chosen to early adopt the amendments to IAS 39 published by the IASB in June 2005, "the Fair Value Option". These amendments made changes to the definition of financial assets and liabilities that may be recognised at "fair value through profit and loss". Accordingly the current financial statements have been prepared in accordance with these amendments.
The accounting policies set out below have, unless otherwise stated, been applied consistently to all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements and in preparing an opening IFRS balance sheet at 1 January 2004 for the purposes of the transition to Adopted IFRSs.
Both the Group and the Company are preparing their financial statements in accordance with Adopted IFRS for the first time and consequently both have applied IFRS 1. An explanation of how the transition to Adopted IFRSs has affected the reported financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the Group is provided in note 51.
IFRS 1 grants certain exemptions from the full requirements of IFRSs in the transition period. The following exemptions have been taken in these financial statements:
The financial statements are prepared on the historical cost basis except that the following assets and liabilities are stated at their fair value: derivative financial instruments, financial instruments classified as fair value through the income statement or as available-for-sale and investment property. Non-current assets and disposal groups held for sale are stated at the lower of previous carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.
Judgements made by the directors, in the applications of these accounting policies that have significant effect on the financial statements and estimates with a significant risk of material adjustment in the next year are discussed in note 1(p).
(b) Foreign currency translation
(i) Foreign currency transactions
The Group's presentation currency is Pounds Sterling (£). The functional currency of the Group's foreign operations is the currency of the primary economic environment in which these entities operate.
Transactions in foreign currencies are converted into the functional currency at the rate of exchange ruling at the date of the transaction.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the relevant functional currency at rates of exchange ruling at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are stated at fair value are translated into the functional currency at foreign exchange rates ruling at the dates the fair values were determined. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are stated at historical cost are converted into the functional currency at the rate of exchange ruling at the date of the initial recognition of the asset and liability and are not subsequently retranslated.
Exchange gains and losses on the translation and settlement during the period of foreign currency assets and liabilities are recognised in the income statement. Exchange differences for non-monetary items are recognised in equity when the changes in the fair value of the non-monetary item is recognised in equity, and in the income statement if the changes in fair value of the non-monetary item is recognised in the income statement.
(ii) Foreign investments
The assets and liabilities of foreign operations are translated from their respective functional currencies into the Group's presentation currency using the year-end exchange rates, and their income and expenses using the average exchange rates. Unrealised gains or losses resulting from translation of functional currencies to the presentation currency are included as a separate component of shareholders' equity. To the extent that these gains and losses are effectively hedged, the gains and losses arising on the hedged items are also included in that component of shareholder's equity. Upon the disposal of subsidiaries the cumulative amount of exchange differences deferred in shareholder's equity, net of attributable amounts in relation to net investments, is recognised in the income statement.
(c) Group accounting
(i) Subsidiary undertakings and special purpose entities
Subsidiary undertakings are those entities controlled by the Group. Subsidiary undertakings include special purpose entities created to accomplish a narrow, well-defined objective, which may take the form of a corporation, trust, partnership or unincorporated entities, and where the substance of the relationship between the Group and the entity indicates that the entity is controlled by the Group.
Control exists when the Company has the power, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. The Company considers the existence and effect of potential voting rights currently exercisable or convertible when assessing whether it has control. Entities in which the Company holds half or less of the voting rights, but which are controlled by the virtue of the Company retaining the majority of risks or benefits, are also included in the consolidated accounts.
The Group accounts include the assets, liabilities and results of the Company and subsidiary undertakings. This includes special purpose entities and holdings in mutual funds consolidated in accordance with IAS 27. The results of subsidiary undertakings acquired or disposed of in the year are included in the consolidated income statement from the date of acquisition or up to the date of disposal or control ceasing.
Intragroup balances and transactions, and all profits and losses arising from intragroup transactions, are eliminated in preparing the Group financial statements. Unrealised losses are not eliminated to the extent that they provide evidence of impairment.
An associate is an entity, including an unincorporated entity such as a partnership, over which the Group exercises significant influence but not control, through participation in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee (and that is neither a subsidiary nor an investment in a joint venture).
The results and assets and liabilities of associates are incorporated in these financial statements using the equity method of accounting. The carrying amount of such investments is reduced to recognise any impairment in the value of individual investments.
Where a Group enterprise transacts with an associate of the Group, unrealised profits and losses are eliminated to the extent of the Group's interest in the relevant associate. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same way but only to the extent there is no evidence of impairment.
Investments in associates, which are held with a view to subsequent resale are accounted for as non-current assets held for sale and those held by policyholder long-term insurance funds are accounted for as financial assets fair valued through the income statement.
(d) Insurance and investment contracts
(i) Classification of contracts
Contracts under which the Group accepts significant insurance risk from another party (the policyholder) by agreeing to compensate the policyholder or other beneficiary if a specified uncertain future event (the insured event) adversely affects the policyholder are classified as insurance contracts. Insurance risk is risk other than financial risk. Financial risk is the risk of a possible future change in one or more of a specified interest rate, security price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, a credit rating or credit index, or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract.
Contracts with a discretionary participating feature are those under which the policyholder holds a contractual right to receive additional payments as a supplement to guaranteed minimum payments. These additional payments, the amount or timing of which is at the Group's discretion, represent a significant portion of the total contractual payments and are contractually based on (1) the performance of a specified pool of contracts or a specified type of contract, (2) realised and/or unrealised investment returns on a specified pool of assets held by the Group or (3) the profit or loss of the Group. Contracts with a discretionary participating feature may be classified either as insurance contracts or investment contracts. All contracts with a discretionary participating feature are accounted for in the same manner as insurance contracts.
Contracts under which the transfer of insurance risk to the Group from the policyholder is not significant are classified as investment contracts.
(ii) Premiums on long-term insurance
Premiums and annuity considerations receivable under insurance contracts and investment contracts with a discretionary participating feature are stated gross of commission, and exclude taxes and levies. Premiums in respect of linked insurance contracts are recognised when the liability is established. Premiums in respect of other insurance contracts and investment contracts with a discretionary participation feature are recognised when due for payment.
Outward reinsurance premiums are recognised when due for payment.
Amounts received under investment contracts other than those with a discretionary participating feature are recorded as deposits to investment contract liabilities.
(iii) Revenue on investment management service contracts
Fees charged for investment management services provided in conjunction with an investment contract are recognised as revenue as the services are provided. Initial fees, which exceed the level of recurring fees and relate to the future provision of services are deferred and amortised over the anticipated period in which services will be provided. Fees charged for investment management service contracts in the asset management segment are also recognised on this basis.
(iv) Claims paid on long-term insurance
Claims paid under insurance contracts and investment contracts with a discretionary participating feature include maturities, annuities, surrenders, death and disability payments.
Maturity and annuity claims are recorded as they fall due for payment. Death and disability claims and surrenders are accounted for when notified.
Reinsurance recoveries are accounted for in the same period as the related claim.
Amounts paid under investment contracts other than those with a discretionary participating feature are recorded as deductions from investment contract liabilities.
(v) Insurance contract provisions
Insurance contract provisions for African businesses have been computed using a gross premium valuation method. Provisions in respect of African business have been made in accordance with the Financial Soundness Valuation basis as set out in the guidelines issued by the Actuarial Society of South Africa in Professional Guidance Note (PGN) 104 (2001). Under this guideline, provisions are valued using realistic expectations of future experience, with margins for prudence and deferral of profit emergence.
Provisions for investment contracts with a discretionary participating feature are also computed using the gross premium valuation method in accordance with the Financial Soundness Valuation basis. Surplus allocated to policyholders but not yet distributed (i.e. bonus smoothing reserve) related to these contracts is included as a provision.
For the US business, the insurance contract provisions are calculated in accordance with US generally accepted accounting policies (US GAAP) using the net premium method, based on assumptions as to investment yields, mortality, withdrawals and policyholder dividends. For the term life products, the assumptions are set at the time the contracts are issued, whereas the assumptions are updated annually, based on experience for the annuity products.
Universal life and deferred annuity reserves are computed on the retrospective deposit method, which produces reserves equal to the cash value of the contracts.
Reserves on immediate annuities and guaranteed payments are computed on the prospective deposit method, which produces reserves equal to the present value of future benefit payments.
For other territories, the valuation bases adopted are in accordance with local actuarial practices and methodologies.
Derivatives embedded in an insurance contract are not separated and measured at fair value if the embedded derivative itself qualifies for recognition as an insurance contract. In this case the entire contract is measured as described above.
The Group performs liability adequacy testing on its insurance liabilities to ensure that the carrying amount of its liabilities (less related deferred acquisitions costs and intangibles assets) is sufficient in view of estimated future cash flows. When performing the liability adequacy test, the Group discounts all contractual cash flows and compares this amount to the carrying value of the liability. Where a shortfall is identified, an additional provision is made.
The provision estimation techniques and assumptions are periodically reviewed, with any changes in estimates reflected in the income statement as they occur.
Whilst the directors consider that the gross insurance contract provisions and the related reinsurance recovery are fairly stated on the basis of the information currently available to them, the ultimate liability will vary as a result of subsequent information and events and may result in significant adjustments to the amount provided.
The Group applies shadow accounting in relation to certain insurance contract provisions, which are supported by available-for-sale assets or owner occupied properties, on which unrealised gains and losses are recognised within equity.
Adjustments are made to the insurance contract provisions, the assets held in relation to deferred acquisition costs and the value of in-force business to reflect the movements in these balances that would have arisen if the unrealised gains and losses had been recognised in the income statement. The corresponding change in the value of these balances is also recognised in equity. When the assets being shadow accounted are sold, the related amounts that were recognised in equity are transferred to the income statement.
(vi) Investment contract liabilities
Liabilities for unit linked and market linked contracts are reported at fair value, as permitted by the amendment to IAS 39 in respect of the fair value option. For unit linked and market linked contracts, this is calculated as the account balance, which is the value of the units allocated to the policyholder, based on the bid price value of the assets in the underlying fund (adjusted for tax). For other linked contracts, the fair value of the liability is determined by reference to the fair value of the underlying assets. The fair value of the liability is subject to the "deposit floor" such that the liability established cannot be less than the amount repayable on demand.
Non-linked investment contract liabilities are measured at amortised cost.
Derivatives embedded in investment contracts are separated and measured at fair value, when their risks and characteristics are not closely related to those of the host contract and the host contract liability is calculated on an amortised cost basis.
(vii) Acquisition costs
Acquisition costs for insurance contracts comprise all direct and indirect costs arising from the sale of insurance contracts.
As the gross premium valuation method used in African territories to determine insurance contract provisions makes implicit allowance for the deferral of acquisition costs, no explicit deferred acquisition cost asset is recognised in the balance sheet for the contracts issued in these areas.
For the US life insurance business, an explicit deferred acquisition cost asset has been established in the balance sheet. Deferred acquisition costs are amortised over the period that profits on the related insurance policies are expected to emerge. Acquisition costs are deferred to the extent that they are deemed recoverable from available future profit margins.
Deferral of costs on other insurance business is limited to the extent that they are deemed recoverable from available future margins.
(viii) Deferred acquisition costs in respect of investment management service contracts
Costs that are directly attributable to securing an investment management service contract are deferred if they can be identified separately and measured reliably and it is probable that they will be recovered. Deferred acquisition costs represent the contractual right to benefit from providing investment management services and is amortised as the related revenue is recognised. Costs attributable to investment management service contracts in the asset management segment are also recognised on this basis.
General insurance business
All classes of general insurance business are accounted for on an annual basis.
(ix) Premiums on general insurance
Premiums are stated gross of commissions, exclude taxes and levies and are accounted for in the period in which the risk commences. The proportion of the premiums written relating to periods of risk after the balance sheet date is carried forward to subsequent accounting periods as unearned premiums, so that earned premiums relate to risks carried during the accounting period.
Outward reinsurance premiums are accounted for in the same accounting period as the premiums for the related direct insurance.
(x) Claims on general insurance
Claims incurred comprise the settlement and handling costs of paid and outstanding claims arising during the year and adjustments to prior year claim provisions. Outstanding claims comprise claims incurred up to, but not paid, at the end of the accounting period, whether reported or not.
Outstanding claims do not include any provision for possible future claims where the claims arise under contracts not in existence at the balance sheet date.
The Group performs liability adequacy testing on its claim liabilities to ensure that the carrying amount of its liabilities (less related deferred acquisition costs and the unearned premium reserve) is sufficient in view of estimated future cash flows.
Whilst the directors consider that the gross provisions for claims and the related reinsurance recoveries are fairly stated on the basis of the information currently available to them, the ultimate liability will vary as a result of subsequent information and events, and may result in significant adjustments to the amount provided. Adjustments to the amounts of claims provisions established in prior years are reflected in the financial statements for the period in which the adjustments are made, and disclosed separately if material. The methods used and estimates made are reviewed regularly.
(xi) Acquisition costs on general insurance
Acquisition costs, which represent commission and other related expenses, are deferred and amortised over the period in which the related premiums are earned.
The Group cedes reinsurance in the normal course of business for the purpose of limiting its net loss potential through the diversification of its risks. Assets, liabilities and income and expense arising from ceded reinsurance contracts are presented separately from the related assets, liabilities, income and expense from the related insurance contracts because the reinsurance arrangements do not relieve the Group from its direct obligations to its policyholders.
Only rights under contracts that give rise to a significant transfer of insurance risk are accounted for as reinsurance assets. Rights under contracts that do not transfer significant insurance risk, are accounted for as financial instruments.
Reinsurance premiums for ceded reinsurance are recognised as an expense on a basis that is consistent with the recognition basis for the premiums on the related insurance contracts. For general insurance business, reinsurance premiums are expensed over the period that the reinsurance cover is provided based on the expected pattern of the reinsured risks. The unexpensed portion of ceded reinsurance premiums is included in reinsurance assets.
The net amounts paid to a reassurer at the inception of a contract may be less than the reassurance assets recognised by the Group in respect of its rights under such contracts. Any difference between the premium due to the reinsurer and the reassurance asset recognised is included in the income statement in the period in which the reinsurance premium is due.
The amounts recognised as reinsurance assets are measured on a basis that is consistent with the measurement of the provisions held in respect of the related insurance contracts.
Reinsurance assets include recoveries due from reinsurance companies in respect of claims paid. These are classified as debtors arising from reinsurance operations and are included within other assets in the balance sheet.
Reinsurance assets are assessed for impairment at each balance sheet date. An asset is deemed impaired if there is objective evidence, as a result of an event that occurred after its initial recognition, that the Group may not recover all amounts due, and that the event has a reliably measurable impact on the amounts that the Group will receive from the reinsurer.
(e) Financial instruments
(i) Recognition and de-recognition
A financial asset or liability is recognised when, and only when, the Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the financial instrument.
The Group derecognises a financial asset when, and only when:
A financial liability is derecognised when and only when the liability is extinguished, that is, when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or has expired.
The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability (or part thereof) extinguished or transferred to another party and consideration received, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in the income statement.
(ii) Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments including foreign exchange contracts, interest rate futures, forward rate agreements, currency and interest rate swaps, currency and interest rate options (both written and purchased) and other derivative financial instruments are initially recognised in the balance sheet at fair value. Fair values are obtained from quoted market prices, discounted cash flow models and options pricing models as appropriate. All derivatives are carried as assets when their fair value is positive and as liabilities when their fair value is negative.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives not designated as hedges for hedge accounting purposes are included in investment income.
(iii) Hedge accounting
Qualifying hedging instruments must either be derivative financial instruments or non derivative financial instruments used to hedge the risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, changes in fair value or changes in cash flows. Changes in the value of the financial instrument should be expected to offset changes in the fair value or cash flows of the underlying hedged item.
The Group designates certain qualifying hedging instruments as either (1) a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognised asset or liability (fair value hedge); (2) a hedge of a future cash flow attributable to a recognised asset or liability, a forecasted transaction or a firm commitment and could affect profit or loss (cash flow hedge); or, (3) a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation. Hedge accounting is used for qualifying hedging instruments designated in this way provided certain criteria are met.
The Group's criteria for a qualifying hedging instrument to be accounted for as a hedge include:
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges and that prove to be highly effective in relation to hedged risk, are recorded in the income statement, along with the corresponding change in fair value of the hedged asset or liability that is attributable to that specific hedged risk.
If the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. Any previous adjustment to the carrying amount of a hedged interest-bearing financial instrument carried at amortised cost, (as a result of previous hedge accounting), is amortised in the income statement from the date hedge accounting ceases, to the maturity date of the financial instrument, based on the effective interest rate method. The adjustment to the carrying amount of a previously hedged available-for-sale security remains in retained earnings until the disposal of the equity security.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges or hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation and that prove to be highly effective in relation to the hedged risk are recognised in equity.
Where the forecasted transaction results in the recognition or firm commitment results in the recognition of a non financial asset or of a liability, the gains and losses previously deferred in equity are transferred from equity and included in the initial measurement of the cost of the asset or liability. Otherwise, amounts deferred in equity are transferred to the income statement and classified as revenue or expense in the periods during which the hedged firm commitment or forecasted transaction or the resulting financial asset or liability affects the income statement.
For hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation, any cumulative gains or losses recognised in equity are recognised in the income statement on disposal of the foreign operation.
(iv) Embedded derivatives
Certain derivatives embedded in other financial and non-financial instruments, such as the conversion option in a convertible bond, are treated as separate derivatives and recognised as such on a stand alone basis, when their risks and characteristics are not closely related to those of the host contract and the host contract is not carried at fair value with unrealised gains and losses reported in the income statement.
If it is not possible to determine the fair value of the embedded derivative, the entire hybrid instrument is categorised as fair value through the income statement and measured at fair value.
(v) Offsetting financial instruments and related income
Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount reported in the balance sheet only when there is a legally enforceable right to set off and there is intention to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
Income and expense items are offset only to the extent that their related instruments have been offset in the balance sheet, with the exception of those relating to hedges, which are disclosed in accordance with the income statement effect of the hedged item.
(vi) Interest income and expense
Interest income and expense in relation to financial instruments carried at amortised cost or held as available-for-sale is recognised in the income statement using the effective interest rate method taking into account the expected timing and amount of cash flows. Interest income and expense include the amortisation of any discount or premium or other differences between the initial carrying amount of an interest-bearing instrument and its amount at maturity calculated on an effective interest rate basis.
(vii) Non-interest revenue
Non-interest revenue in respect of financial instruments principally comprises fees and commissions and other operating income, as set out in note 3(vi). These are accounted for as set out below:
Fees and commission
Loan origination fees for loans that are probable of being drawn down, are deferred (together with related direct costs) and recognised as an adjustment to the effective yield on the loan. Commission and fees arising from negotiating, or participating in the negotiation of a transaction for a third party, such as the acquisition of loans, shares or other securities or the purchase or sale of businesses, are recognised on completion of the underlying transaction.
Revenue other than interest, fees and commission and insurance premiums, which includes exchange and securities trading income, dividends from investments and net gains on the sale of banking assets, is recognised in the income statement when the amount of revenue from the transaction or service can be measured reliably, it is probable that the economic benefits of the transaction or service will flow to the Group and the costs associated with the transaction or service can be measured reliably.
(viii) Financial assets carried at fair value through the income statement
Financial assets carried at fair value through the income statement are comprised of trading securities and those securities that the Group has elected to designate as fair value through the income statement.
Trading securities are those that were either acquired for generating a profit from short-term fluctuations in price or dealer's margin, or are securities included in a portfolio in which a pattern of short-term profit taking exists, or are derivatives that are not designated and effective hedging instruments.
Securities that the Group has elected to designate as fair value through the income statement are those where the treatment either eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise when using a different measurement basis and are managed, evaluated and reported using a fair value basis.
Financial assets carried at fair value through the income statement are initially recognised at fair value and subsequently re-measured at fair value based on quoted bid prices. If quoted bid prices are unavailable the fair value of the financial asset is estimated using pricing models or discounted cash flow techniques. Where discounted cash flow techniques are used, estimated future cash flows are based on management's best estimates and the discount rate used is a market-related rate at the balance sheet date for an instrument with similar terms and conditions. Where pricing models are used, inputs are based on market-related measures at the balance sheet date.
Realised and unrealised gains and losses on all financial assets carried at fair value through the income statement, including derivatives and other financial instruments, are included in Investment income. Interest earned whilst holding trading securities is reported as interest income.
Dividends received are included in dividend income.
All purchases and sales of financial assets carried at fair value through the income statement that require delivery within the time frame established by regulation or market convention ('regular way' purchases and sales) are recognised at trade date, which is the date that the Group commits to purchase or sell the asset. Otherwise such transactions are treated as derivatives until settlement occurs.
(ix) Sale and repurchase agreements and lending of securities
Securities sold subject to linked repurchase agreements are retained in the financial statements as trading or investment securities and the counter party liability is included in amounts owed to other depositors, deposits from other banks, or other money market deposits, as appropriate. Securities purchased under agreements to resell at a pre-determined price are recorded as loans and advances to other banks or customers as appropriate. The difference between sale and repurchase price is treated as interest and accrued over the lives of agreements using the effective yield method. Securities lent to counter parties are also retained in the financial statements and any interest earned recognised in the income statement using the effective yield method.
Securities borrowed are not recognised in the financial statements, unless these are sold to third parties, in which case the purchase and sale are recorded with the gain or loss included in trading income. The obligation to return them is recorded at fair value as a trading liability.
(x) Other financial assets
The Group classifies its other financial assets into the following two categories: held-to-maturity and available-for-sale assets. Other financial assets with fixed maturity where management has both the intent and the ability to hold to maturity are classified as held-to-maturity. Investment securities intended to be held for an indefinite period of time, which may be sold in response to needs for liquidity or changes in interest rates, exchange rates or equity prices are classified as available-for-sale. Management determines the appropriate classification of its investments at the time of the purchase.
Other financial assets are initially recognised at their fair value, which includes transaction costs. Available-for-sale financial assets are subsequently re-measured at fair value based on quoted bid prices. If quoted bid prices are unavailable the fair value of the financial asset is estimated using pricing models or discounted cash flow techniques. Where discounted cash flow techniques are used, estimated future cash flows are based on management's best estimates and the discount rate used is a market-related rate at the balance sheet date for an instrument with similar terms and conditions. Where pricing models are used, inputs are based on market-related measures at the balance sheet date.
Unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of financial assets classified as available-for-sale are recognised in equity. When available-for-sale financial assets are disposed the related accumulated fair value adjustments are included in the income statement as gains and losses from available-for-sale financial assets. When available-for-sale assets are impaired the resulting loss is shown separately in the income statement as an impairment charge.
Held-to-maturity investments are carried at amortised cost using the effective yield method, less any impairment write-downs.
Interest earned whilst holding other financial assets is reported within Investment income and Banking interest and similar income, as appropriate. Dividends receivable are included separately in dividend income, within Investment income, when a dividend is declared.
(xi) Impairment of financial assets and purchased loans and receivables
A financial asset is deemed to be impaired when its carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount, and there is evidence to suggest that the impairment occurred subsequent to the initial recognition of the asset in the financial statements. The amount of the impairment loss for assets carried at amortised cost is calculated as being the difference between the asset's carrying amount and the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the financial instrument's original effective interest rate. The recoverable amount, for assets classified as available-for-sale and measured at fair value, is the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the current market rate of interest for a similar financial asset. All such impairments are recognised in the income statement.
Where there is evidence of the reversal of the impairment of a financial asset held at amortised cost, the release of the impairment allowance is credited to the income statement. This is consistent with the initial recognition of impairment charges.
Where there is evidence of the reversal of the impairment of a financial asset classified as available-for-sale the release of the impairment allowance is credited to the available-for-sale reserve within equity.
(xii) Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market, other than those classified by the Group as fair value through profit or loss or available-for-sale. Loans and receivables are carried at amortised cost. Third party expenses, such as legal fees, incurred in securing a loan are treated as part of the cost of the transaction.
All loans and receivables are recognised when cash is advanced to borrowers.
(xiii) Impairment of loans and receivables
An allowance account for loan impairment is established if there is objective evidence that the Group will not be able to collect all amounts due from a financial contract. The amount of the impairment is the difference between the carrying amount and the recoverable amount, being the present value of expected cash flows, including amounts recoverable from guarantees and collateral, discounted based on the effective interest rate at inception.
The impairment allowance account also covers losses where there is objective evidence that losses are present in components of the loan portfolio at the balance sheet date, but these components have not yet been specifically identified. When a loan is uncollectible, it is written off against the related impairment allowance account. Subsequent recoveries are credited to bad and doubtful debt expense in the income statement.
If the amount of impairment subsequently decreases due to an event occurring after the write down, the release of the impairment allowance account is credited to bad and doubtful debt expense in the income statement. Impairment reversals are limited to what the carrying amount would have been, had no impairment losses been recognised.
Interest income on loans and receivables held at amortised cost is recognised on the impaired amount using the original effective interest rate before the impairment.
(xiv) Borrowings, including convertible bonds
Borrowings are recognised initially at their issue proceeds net of transaction costs incurred. Subsequently borrowings are stated at amortised cost and any difference between net proceeds and the redemption value is recognised in the income statement over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method.
The conversion options included in convertible bonds are recorded separately in shareholders' equity. The Group does not recognise any change in the value of this option in subsequent periods. The remaining obligation to make future payments of principal and interest to bondholders is calculated using a market interest rate for an equivalent non-convertible bond and is presented on the amortised cost basis in other borrowed funds until extinguished on conversion or maturity of the bonds.
If the Group purchases its own debt, it is removed from the balance sheet and the difference between the carrying amount of a liability and the consideration paid is included in other income.
Acceptances comprise undertakings by the Group to pay bills of exchange drawn on customers. The Group expects most acceptances to be settled simultaneously with the reimbursement from customers. Acceptances are disclosed as liabilities with the corresponding contra-asset recorded in the balance sheet.
(xvi) Financial liabilities, including investment contracts
Financial liabilities are classified as either fair value through income statement or Other trading liabilities. Financial liabilities classified as fair value through the income statement include trading securities and those liabilities that the Group has elected to designate as fair value through the profit and loss.
Financial liabilities held for trading are carried at fair value, where the fair value of a financial liability with a demand feature is not less than the amount payable on demand, discounted from the first date that the amount could be required to be paid.
Liabilities that the Group has elected to designate as fair value through the income statement are those where the treatment either eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise when using a different measurement basis and are managed, evaluated and reported using a fair value basis.
Financial liabilities classified as Other trading liabilities and are recognised initially at cost, less attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition all other financial liabilities are stated at amortised cost with any difference between cost and redemption value being recognised in the income statement over the period of the borrowings on an effective interest basis.
Income tax on the profit or loss for the year comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax is recognised in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognised directly to equity, in which case it is recognised in equity.
(i) Current tax
Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.
(ii) Deferred tax
Deferred taxation is provided using the balance sheet liability method, based on temporary differences. Temporary differences are differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and their tax base. The amount of deferred taxation provided is based on the expected manner of realisation or settlement of the carrying amount of assets and liabilities using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred taxation is charged to the income statement except to the extent that it relates to a transaction that is recognised directly in equity, or a business combination that is an acquisition. The effect on deferred taxation of any changes in tax rates is recognised in the income statement, except to the extent that it relates to items previously charged or credited directly to equity. A deferred-tax asset is recognised only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable income will be available, against which the unutilised tax losses and deductible temporary differences can be used. Deferred-tax assets are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefits will be realised.
In certain circumstances, as permitted by accounting guidance, deferred tax balances are not recognised. In particular where the liability relates to the initial recognition of goodwill, or transactions that are not a business combination and at the time of their occurrence affect neither accounting of taxable profit. Note 21 includes further detail of circumstances in which the Group does not recognise temporary differences.
(g) Intangible assets
(i) Goodwill and goodwill impairment
All business combinations are accounted for by applying the purchase method. At acquisition date, the Group recognises the fair value of the acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities that satisfy the recognition criteria. The cost of a business combination is the fair value of purchase consideration due at date of acquisition plus any directly attributable transaction costs. Contingent purchase consideration is recognised to the extent that it is probable and can be measured reliably. Any minority interest in the acquiree is stated at the minority's proportion of the net fair values of those items. Any excess between the cost of the business combination and the Group's interest in the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities is recognised as goodwill. Goodwill is adjusted for any subsequent re-measurement of contingent purchase consideration.
Purchased goodwill is allocated to one or more cash-generating units (CGUs), being the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or group of assets. The directors annually test for impairment each CGU containing goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. Where businesses are acquired as part of the same investment acquisition, these are combined for determining recoverability of the related goodwill. An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its CGU exceeds its recoverable amount. However, impairment losses relating to goodwill are not reversed. Where businesses are acquired as part of the same investment, these units are combined for the purposes of determining recoverability of the related goodwill.
(ii) Present value of acquired in-force insurance and investment contract business
The present value of acquired in-force insurance and investment contract business is capitalised in the consolidated balance sheet as an intangible asset.
The capitalised value is the present value of cash flows anticipated in the future from the relevant book of insurance and investment contract policies acquired. This is calculated by performing a cash flow projection of the associated long-term fund and book of in-force policies in order to estimate future after tax profits attributable to shareholders. The valuation is based on actuarial principles taking into account future premium income, mortality, disease and surrender probabilities, together with future costs and investment returns on the assets supporting the fund. These profits are discounted at a rate of return allowing for the risk of uncertainty of the future cash flows. This calculation is particularly sensitive to the assumptions regarding discount rate, future investment returns and the rate at which policies discontinue.
The asset is amortised over the expected profit recognition period on a systematic basis over the anticipated lives of the related contracts, which the directors have considered to be 30 years.
The amortisation charge is stated net of any unwind in the discount rate used to calculate the asset.
The recoverable amount of the asset is re-calculated at each balance sheet date and any impairment losses recognised accordingly.
(iii) Internally developed software
Internally developed software is amortised over its estimated useful life. Such assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. Software is recognised in the balance sheet if, and only if, it is probable that the relevant future economic benefits attributable to the software will flow to the Group and its cost can be measured reliably.
Costs incurred in the research phase are expensed whereas costs incurred in the development phase are capitalised subject to meeting specific criteria, set out in the relevant accounting guidance. The main criteria being that future economic benefit can be identified as a result of the developmental expenditure. Amortisation is charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the relevant software, which range between two and five years.
(iv) Subsequent expenditure
Subsequent expenditure on capitalised intangible assets is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure is expensed as incurred.
(h) Impairment (all assets other than goodwill and financial instruments)
The Group assesses all assets (other than goodwill and intangible assets with an indefinite useful life) on an ongoing basis for indications of an impairment loss or the reversal of a previously recognised impairment. If evidence of impairment, or reversal of impairment is found to exist, then detailed impairment testing is carried out. Impairments (where the carrying value of the asset exceeds its recoverable amount) and the reversal of a previously recognised impairments are recognised in the income statement.
(i) Property, plant and equipment
(i) Owned assets
Owner-occupied property is stated at revalued amounts, being fair value at the date of revaluation less subsequent accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
Plant and equipment, principally computer equipment, motor vehicles, fixtures and furniture, is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.
(ii) Subsequent expenditure
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised when it is measurable and will result in probable future economic benefits. Expenditure incurred to replace a separate component of an item of owner occupied property, plant or equipment is capitalised to the cost of the item of owner occupied property, plant and equipment and the component replaced is derecognised. All other expenditure is recognised in the income statement as an expense when incurred.
(iii) Revaluation of owner-occupied property
Owner-occupied property is valued on the same basis as for investment property.
When an individual property is re-valued, any increase in its carrying amount (as a result of the revaluation) is transferred to a revaluation reserve, except to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same property previously recognised as an expense in the income statement.
When the value of an individual property is decreased as a result of a revaluation, the decrease is charged against any related credit balance in the revaluation reserve in respect of that property. However, to the extent that it exceeds any surplus, it is recognised as an expense in the income statement.
On derecognition of an owner-occupied property, or item of plant or equipment, any gain or loss on disposal, determined as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, is included in the income statement in the period of the derecognition. In the case of owner-occupied property, any surplus in the revaluation reserve in respect of the individual property is transferred directly to retained earnings.
Depreciation is charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of items of owner-occupied property, plant and equipment that are accounted for separately.
In the case of owner-occupied property, on revaluation any accumulated depreciation at the date of the revaluation is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the property concerned and the net amount restated to the revalued amount. Subsequent depreciation charges are adjusted based on the revalued amount for each property. Any difference between the depreciation charge on the revalued amount and that which would have been charged under historic cost is transferred net of any related deferred tax, between the revaluation reserve and retained earnings as the property is utilised. Land is not depreciated.
The maximum estimated useful lives are as follows:
Leases where the lessor retains the risks and rewards of ownership of the underlying asset are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases are charged against income on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease.
Lease agreements where the Group substantially accepts the risks and rewards of the ownership of the leased asset are classified as finance leases. Finance leases are capitalised at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value of the leased asset or the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are allocated between the liability and finance charges so as to achieve a constant interest rate on the outstanding balance of the liability.
Finance lease obligations, net of finance charges, are included in liabilities. The interest element of the finance cost is charged to the income statement over the lease period according to the effective interest method. Where applicable, assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated over the shorter of the useful life of the asset and the lease term.
(j) Investment properties
Investment property is real estate held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation. It does not include real estate held for use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes.
Investment properties are stated at fair value. Internal professional valuers perform valuations annually. For practical reasons, valuations are carried out on a cyclical basis over a twelve-month period due to the large number of properties involved. External valuations are obtained once every three years on a cyclical basis. In the event of a material change in market conditions between the valuation date and balance sheet date an internal valuation is performed and adjustments made to reflect any material changes in value.
The valuation methodology adopted is dependent upon the nature of the property. Income generating assets are valued using discounted cash flows. Vacant land, land holdings and residential flats are valued according to sales of comparable properties. Near vacant properties are valued at land value less the estimated cost of demolition.
Surpluses and deficits arising from changes in fair value are reflected in the income statement.
For properties reclassified during the year from property, plant and equipment to investment properties any revaluation gain arising is initially recognised in the income statement to the extent of previously charged impairment losses. Any residual excess is taken to the revaluation reserve. Revaluation deficits are recognised in the revaluation reserve to the extent of previously recognised gains and any residual deficit is accounted for in the income statement.
Investment properties that are reclassified to owner occupied property are revalued at the date of transfer, with any difference being taken to the income statement.
(k) Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction and production of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the costs of those assets. Qualifying assets are those that necessarily take a substantial period of time to prepare for their intended use or sale. Capitalisation of borrowing costs continues up to the date when the assets are substantially ready for their use or sale.
All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
Borrowing costs are calculated at the Group's average funding cost except to the extent that funds are borrowed specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset. Where this occurs actual borrowing costs incurred less any investment income on the temporary investment of those borrowings is capitalised.
(l) Pension plans and retirement benefits
Defined benefit and defined contribution schemes have been established for eligible employees of the Group with the assets held in separate trustee administered funds.
Pension obligations are accounted for in accordance with IAS 19, Employee Benefits. The projected unit credit method is used to determine the defined benefit obligations based on actuarial assessments, which incorporate not only the pension obligations known on the balance sheet date but also information relevant to their expected future development. The discount rates used are determined based on the yields for investment grade corporate bonds that have maturity dates approximating to the terms of the Group's obligations.
Actuarial gains or losses are accounted for using the "corridor method". Actuarial gains and losses are recognised eligible for recognition in the income statement to the extent that they exceed 10 per cent of the greater of the fair value of the plan assets or the present value of the gross defined benefit obligations in the scheme. Actuarial gains and losses exceeding 10 per cent are spread over the expected average remaining working lives of the employees participating in the scheme.
Where the calculation results in a benefit to the Group, the recognised asset is limited to the net total of any unrecognised actuarial losses and past service costs and the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan.
When the benefits of a plan are improved, the portion of the increased benefit relating to past service by employees is recognised as an expense in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the average period until the benefits become vested. To the extent that the benefits vest immediately, the expense is recognised immediately in the income statement.
Contributions in respect of defined contribution schemes are recognised as an expense in the income statement as incurred.
Where applicable Group companies make provision for post retirement medical and housing benefits for eligible employees. Non-pension postretirement benefits are accounted for according to their nature, either as defined contribution or defined benefit plans. The expected costs of post-retirement benefits that are defined benefit plans in nature are accounted for in the same manner as for defined benefit pension plans.
(m) Share-based payments
(i) Equity-settled share-based payment transactions with employees and other service providers
The services received in an equity-settled transaction with employees and other service providers are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments granted. The fair value of those equity instruments is measured at grant date.
If the equity instruments granted vest immediately and the employee is not required to complete a specified period of service before becoming unconditionally entitled to those instruments or the other service providers have completed their obligations, the services received are recognised in full on grant date in the income statement for the period, with a corresponding increase in equity.
Where the equity instruments do not vest until the employee or other service provider has completed a specified period of service, it is assumed that the services rendered by the employee or other service provider, as consideration for those equity instruments will be received in the future, during the vesting period. These services are accounted for in the income statement as they are rendered during the vesting period, with a corresponding increase in equity.
(ii) Cash-settled share-based payment transactions with employees
The services received in cash-settled transactions with employees and the liability to pay for those services, are recognised at fair value as the employee renders services. Until the liability is settled, the fair value of the liability is re-measured at each reporting date and at the date of settlement, with any changes in fair value recognised in the income statement for the period.
(iii) Measurement of fair value of equity instruments granted
The equity instruments granted by the Group are measured at fair value at measurement date using standard option pricing valuation models. The valuation technique is consistent with generally acceptable valuation methodologies for pricing financial instruments, and incorporates all factors and assumptions that knowledgeable, willing market participants would consider in setting the price of the equity instruments.
(n) Cash and cash equivalents
For the purposes of the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents comprise balances with less than 90 days maturity from the date of acquisition and which are highly liquid and subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. This includes: cash and balances with central banks, treasury bills and other eligible bills, amounts due from other banks and trading securities. It excludes cash balances held for investment purposes.
(o) Other provisions
Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, for which it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will occur, and where a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Where the effect of discounting is material, provisions are discounted and the discount rate used is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability.
(p) Critical accounting estimates and judgements
Critical accounting estimates are those which involve the most complex or subjective judgements or assessments. The areas of the Group's business that typically require such estimates are life insurance contract provisions, determination of the fair value for financial assets and liabilities, impairment charges, deferred acquisition costs, and deferred taxes.
Insurance contract accounting is discussed in more detail in note 1(d), and further detail of the key assumptions made in determining insurance contract provisions is included in note 22.
The fair values of financial assets and liabilities are classified and accounted for in accordance with the policies set out in section 1(e) above. They are valued on the basis of listed market prices in so far as this is possible. If prices are note readily determinable, fair value is based either on internal valuation models or management estimates of amounts that could be realised under current market conditions. Fair values of certain financial instruments including over-the-counter (OTC) derivative instruments, are determined using pricing models that consider, among other factors, contractual and market prices, correlations, yield curves, credit spreads, and volatility factors.
Assets are subject to regular impairment reviews as required. Impairments are measured at the difference between the cost (or amortised cost) of a particular asset and the current fair value or recoverable amount. Impairments are recorded in the income statement in the period in which they occur. The Group's policy in relation to impairment testing in respect of Goodwill is detailed in note 1(g). The policy in respect of investment securities and purchased loans and receivables is described in note 1(e).
Deferred acquisition costs policies in relation to insurance, investment management, and general insurance contracts are described in note 1(d), respectively. The accounting policy for deferred tax is detailed in note 1(f).
(q) Segment reporting
The Group's primary segments are geographic and secondary segments are lines of business. Where financial information is required for primary and secondary segments this is provided by way of a matrix format.
The segmental disclosure of results by geography is determined by the origin of business transacted. This is not materially different to the segmental disclosure determined by market destination. Business transacted with South African residents in terms of their personal offshore allowances is conducted by the Group's offshore companies and is therefore disclosed under the Rest of the World Segment.
Assets, liabilities, revenues or expenses that are not directly attributable to a particular segment are allocated between segments where there is a reasonable basis for doing so. The Group accounts for inter-segment revenues and transfers as if the transactions were with third parties at current market prices.
(r) Treasury shares
Upon consolidation, the balance sheet and income statement are adjusted for own shares held by Employee Share Ownership Trusts (ESOPs), policyholder funds, of African life companies and those held in Black Economic Empowerment Trusts consolidated within the Group's accounts.
Own shares are deducted from equity to eliminate the inter-company portion.
On purchase, the cost of the shares acquired is deducted from equity. Subsequently, any gain or loss on the sale or cancellation of an entity's own equity instruments is recognised in equity.
Any net income in relation to own shares, both dividends received and unrealised losses on own shares are eliminated before stating the profit for the year.
Dividends paid in respect of these shares are also excluded when determining the retained profit for the year.
In calculating the basic earnings per share, the exclusion of the income in respect of own shares from the income statement requires the exclusion of treasury shares from the weighted average number of shares.
When calculating the diluted earnings per share, the number of shares included in the weighted average, reflects the potential issue in respect of the treasury shares.
(s) Share capital
Ordinary and preference share capital (including perpetual preferred callable securities) are classified as equity if they are non-redeemable by the shareholder and any dividends are discretionary and coupon payments are recognised as distributions within equity.
Preference share capital is classified as a liability if it is redeemable on a specific date or at the option of the shareholders or if dividend payments are not discretionary. Coupon payments thereon are recognised in the income statement as interest expense.
Dividends payable to holders of equity instruments are recognised in the period in which they are authorised or approved. Interim dividends payable to holders of the Group's ordinary share capital are authorised by the directors of the Parent Company, the final dividend typically requires shareholder approval.
(u) Early adoption of new accounting standards
(i) 'Fair value option' - amendment to IAS 39 (effective 1 January 2006)
For the year ended 31 December 2005 the Group elected to early adopt the provisions of the amendment to IAS 39, the fair value option, published by the IASB in June 2005. These amendments made changes to the definition of financial assets and liabilities that may be recognised at fair value through the income statement. They permit the designation of certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value through the income statement, depending on the satisfaction of certain conditions, as set out below:
As a result of early adoption of IAS 39 the Group has made designations that have eliminated or significantly reduced balance sheet and income statement accounting mismatches that would have arisen in respect of:
(ii) IFRIC 8, 'Scope of IFRS 2' (effective 1 May 2006).
The Group has adopted IFRIC 8 earlier than required. IFRIC 8 is particularly pertinent to the accounting treatment for shares issued in respect of the Black Economic Empowerment schemes. It clarifies the accounting treatment when service can or cannot be identified. Where the Group can identify services received from the recipient of the award the share-based payment charge is spread over the vesting period of the instruments. Where services cannot be identified the cost is expensed with immediate effect.
(v) Future adoption
The following standards, amendments to standards, and interpretations, effective in future accounting periods, which are relevant to the Company, have not been early adopted in these financial statements:
The amendments to IAS 1 and IAS 19, and the introduction of IFRS 7 will predominantly require changes in disclosure, and are not expected to result in changes to the Group's accounting policies. The IAS 39 and IFRS 4 amendments, and IFRIC 4 may impact accounting policies of the Group, but are not expected to have a significant impact on those policies.